How to approach History & Geography of defence specific examination

Studying through the complete syllabus of Geography & History of our country is a very daunting job while you are preparing for the defence specific examinations like those of NDA & CDS. However, the AFCAT and INET have comparatively easier questions mostly, when compared to the other exams of Defence that are conducted through the UPSC. We in “The Lakshya Academy” understand, that “every aspirant has his own way of learning these two subjects i.e.  Geography &History”. And yes It is true that, there are significant numbers of people who never study these subjects and just depend to attempt questions by means of guess and pure risk, and sometimes by methods like hit and trail. Yes It’s tough to learn the history & Geography of our nation because it’s too diverse and considered as one of the oldest civilization the more we dig deep, the more we come to know. Obviously, we cannot devote large time to this, so how to learn this the best way, I present it here to you.

The time required to master the complete Indian History and The Geography to know every bit of it is way more than a year. But if prioritize the topic we can very well cover the whole syllabus by 4-5 months

List of topics to be studied in Modern Indian History:

  1. The Carnatic Wars
  2. Anglo Maratha Wars
  3. Anti – Sikh Riots
  4. The East India Company Rule
  5. The Drain Theory, Colonialism.
  6. Commercialization of agriculture.
  7. Impact of Western Education introduction.
  8. Rise of social and religious reform movements.
  9. The 1857 Revolt, movements by Trade Unions.
  10. Establishment of Indian National Congress.
  11. Moderates and Extremists.
  12. Economic Nationalism (the Swadeshi movement)
  13. Home Rule Movement.
  14. Khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movements.
  15. Civil Disobedience Movement.
  16. Quit India Movement.
  17. Subhas Chandra Bose and INA.
  18. Rise of Muslim League.
  19. Partition of India and Independence.
  20. Everything regarding the Indian Constituent Assembly.
  21. The Nehru’s Vision.
  22. Industrialisation and Agrarian Reforms.
  23. Policy of Non-Alignment, Panchsheel, etc.
  24. Wars with Pakistan.
  25. Everything related to India’s involvement in UNO.

Indian Geography

  1. Basics of India
    1. Location, latitude, longitude, time zone, etc.
    2. Neighbours
    3. Important straits
    4. States and their position
    5. States with international boundaries
  2. Physical features
    1. The Himalayas – geological formation, climate, vegetation, soil, biodiversity, physiographic divisions, major passes, significance
    2. The Great North Indian Plains – geological formation, physiographic divisions, climate, vegetation, soil, biodiversity, significance
    3. Peninsular Plateau – geological formation, Central Highlands, Deccan Plateau, Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats
    4. Indian Desert
    5. Coastal plains and islands
  3. River systems
    1. Himalayan rivers
    2. Peninsular rivers
    3. River basins
    4. Regional development and planning
    5. Hydropower projects, major dams
    6. West-flowing and east-flowing rivers
    7. Interlinking of rivers
  4. Climate
    1. Monsoons – driving mechanism, El Nino, La Nina
    2. Seasons
    3. Cyclones
  5. Minerals and industries – mineral distribution, industrial policies, location
  6. Agriculture
    1. Land utilisation
    2. Types of agricultural practices
    3. Green revolution
    4. Soils and crops
    5. Irrigation
    6. Land reforms
    7. Animal husbandry
    8. Government schemes
  7. Natural vegetation and fauna
    1. Classification of natural vegetation
    2. Rainfall distribution
    3. Biosphere reserves, national parks, etc.
    4. Red-listed species
  8. Economic infrastructure
    1. Transportation (highways, inland waterways, etc.)
    2. Power and energy sector
    3. Conventional and non-conventional sources of energy
    4. Energy conservation
  9. Human Geography
    1. Demographics
    2. Recent census

World Geography

  1. Major natural regions
  2. Regional geography of developed countries
  3. Regional geography of developing countries
  4. Regional geography of South Asia

Physical Geography

  1. Geomorphology
    1. Origin of the earth
    2. Interior of the earth
    3. Types and characteristics of rocks
    4. Folding and Faulting
    5. Volcanoes, earthquakes
    6. Interior of the earth
    7. Weathering
    8. Landforms formed by fluvial, aeolian and glacial actions
  2. Climatology
    1. Atmosphere – structure and composition
    2. Temperature
    3. Pressure belts
    4. Wind systems
    5. Clouds and types of rainfall
    6. Cyclones and anti-cyclones
    7. Major climatic types
  3. Oceanography
    1. Ocean relief
    2. Temperature, salinity
    3. Ocean deposits
    4. Ocean currents
    5. El Nino and La Nina
    6. Waves and tides
  4. Biogeography
    1. Soil – origin and types
    2. Major biomes of the world
    3. Ecosystem, food chain
    4. Environmental degradation and conservation

– Akash Shrivastava

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